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Product Owner and Scrum Master Combined in One Individual?

May 27, 2024

TL;DR: Product Owner and Scrum Master?

Combining the roles of Product Owner and Scrum Master in one individual is a contentious topic in the Agile community. A recent LinkedIn poll, as seen below, revealed that 54% of respondents consider this unification useless, while 30% might accept it in rare moments.

This blog post explores the implications of merging these roles, emphasizing the importance of distinct responsibilities and the potential pitfalls of combining them. We also consider exceptions where this approach might be temporarily justified and analyze the insightful comments from industry professionals.

Product Owner and Scrum Master Combined in One Individual?

The LinkedIn Poll: Could the Product Owner and Scrum Master Be the Same Individual?

On May 23, 2024, I asked a simple question: Could the Product Owner and Scrum Master Be the Same Individual? Or is mixing roles disadvantageous? Agile puts a lot of emphasis on focus. How come then that so often practitioners are asked — or expected — to cover for two roles simultaneously? Penny-pinching or smart move from a holistic perspective?

Product Owner and Scrum Master Combined in One Individual?

Referring to the comments, the majority strongly opposes combining the Product Owner and Scrum Master roles, citing significant differences in responsibilities and the need for checks and balances. Conditional acceptance is noted mainly in startup contexts with resource constraints. Some are open to exceptions but remain cautious about long-term viability. Personal experiences highlight the challenges and potential conflicts, while flexible approaches are suggested for specific contexts.

We can identify five categories among the comments:

  1. Strict Opposition: Fundamental Differences in Roles: The Product Owner and Scrum Master roles have distinct responsibilities, requiring full-time attention and unique skill sets. Combining them can lead to neglect and conflict of interest and undermine the healthy tension that balances product goals with team capacities. The roles act as checks and balances, ensuring ambitious goals and realistic execution.
  2. Conditional Acceptance: Resource Constraints in Startups: In resource-limited situations, such as startups, combining roles may be necessary due to budget constraints. However, this should be a temporary solution until the organization can afford to separate the roles.
  3. Skeptical But Open to Exceptions: Specific Contexts and Temporary Solutions: While generally inadvisable, combining roles might be feasible in exceptional circumstances, such as during temporary absences or in small teams, provided there is clear role differentiation and support.
  4. Experiential Insights: Personal Experience: Individuals with personal experience managing both roles or observing this practice often find it problematic due to inherent conflicts of interest and the heavy workload.
  5. Pragmatic and Flexible Approaches: Practical Solutions: Some suggest rotating the Scrum Master role among team members or having a Developer take on the role to balance responsibilities. Understanding Agile principles and maintaining flexibility in role management can help mitigate potential issues.

Ten Reasons Why Combining Product Owner and Scrum Master Roles is Not a Good Idea

What other reasons might there be to question the idea of unifying Product Owner and Scrum Master roles? Let’s have a look:

  1. Conflict of Interest: Combining the roles of Product Owner (PO) and Scrum Master (SM) creates a conflict of interest. The PO maximizes the product’s value, often requiring prioritization and tough trade-offs. The SM ensures Scrum practices are followed, fostering a healthy team environment. Combining these roles compromises both priorities, reducing objectivity and effectiveness.
  2. Loss of Focus: Each role demands full attention to be effective. The PO must stay engaged with stakeholders, market trends, and the Product Backlog while creating alignment with their teammates. Simultaneously, the SM needs to focus on coaching the team, removing impediments, and supporting changes at the organizational level to improve the team’s environment. Combining roles can dilute focus, leading to suboptimal performance in both areas.
  3. Compromised Accountability: Scrum thrives on clear accountabilities. The PO is accountable for the Product Backlog and value delivery, while the SM is accountable for the Scrum process and team health. Merging these roles blurs the accountability a Scrum team’s success is based on.
  4. Reduced Checks and Balances: Scrum’s design includes built-in checks and balances where the PO focuses on improving value creation, while the SM ensures sustainable pace and quality. Combining the roles removes this tension, potentially leading to burnout or technical debt due to lack of restraint on delivery pressures.
  5. Increased Risk of Micro-Management: Combining roles can lead to micro-management, as the individual may struggle to switch between facilitation and decision-making. This can undermine the team’s self-management, reducing creativity and innovation.
  6. Decreased Team Support: The SM role involves supporting the team by removing impediments and ensuring a healthy work environment. A combined role may prioritize product issues over team issues, reducing the support the team receives and impacting morale and productivity.
  7. Impaired Decision Making: The PO must make decisions quickly to adapt to market changes, while the SM needs to foster team accord and gradual improvement. Combining these roles can slow decision-making processes and create confusion within the team regarding priorities.
  8. Diluted Expertise: Both roles require specific skills and expertise. A PO needs strong business acumen, while an SM needs a deep understanding of agile practices and team dynamics. Combining the roles often means one skill set will dominate, leaving gaps in the other area.
  9. Impeded Transparency: The Scrum framework relies on transparency to inspect and adapt effectively. A single person handling both roles may unintentionally hide issues or conflicts to maintain the appearance of progress, thus impairing the team’s ability to improve continuously.
  10. Undermined Scrum Values: Combining roles can undermine the Scrum values focus, openness, respect, commitment, and courage, as the individual may struggle to balance conflicting responsibilities and provide the necessary support for the team to embody these values effectively.

Consequently, by separating the roles of Product Owner and Scrum Master, organizations ensure clear accountability, maintain checks and balances, and foster a healthier, more productive Scrum environment.

Additional Considerations

What else do we need to consider? Five issues come to mind:

  • Role Synergy vs. Role Conflict: While it’s tempting to think that combining roles might streamline processes and communication, each role has distinct and sometimes conflicting responsibilities. Consider whether the short-term gains of combining roles might be outweighed by long-term inefficiencies and conflicts.
  • Impact on Team Dynamics: Consider how the combination of roles might affect team dynamics. A single person wielding both roles could inadvertently create a hierarchical dynamic, undermining the flat structure that Scrum promotes and potentially leading to reduced team morale and engagement.
  • Sustainability and Burnout: The workload for both roles can be intense. Combining them can lead to burnout for the individual trying to manage both responsibilities. Think about how this might affect their ability to perform effectively over time and the potential impacts on team stability and productivity.
  • Training and Development: Reflect on the development paths for team members. Combining roles might hinder individuals’ ability to specialize and grow in their respective areas. It might be more beneficial to invest in strong, separate training programs for Product Owners and Scrum Masters to ensure they can excel in their distinct roles.
  • Adaptability to Change: Agile practices, including Scrum, thrive on adaptability. Combining roles might reduce the team’s ability to quickly adapt to changes, as the dual-role individual could be overloaded and less responsive to necessary pivots in product development or team facilitation.

Three Exceptions Where Combining the Product Owner and Scrum Master Roles Might Be Justified

By now, we have a solid understanding that under usual circumstances, it is not a good idea to combine the Product Owner and the Scrum Master role. However, under which circumstance might it be acceptable? Let’s delve in:

1. Small Startups or Early-Stage Companies:

  • Context: In the early stages of a startup, resources are often limited. The team might be small, focusing on rapid development and iteration to find product-market fit.
  • Justification: Combining the roles can help streamline decision-making processes and reduce overhead. The person in the dual role can quickly pivot and make changes without waiting for coordination between separate roles.
  • Considerations: This should be temporary until the startup grows and can afford to hire separate individuals for each role. As the company scales, the complexity and workload will likely necessitate separating the roles to maintain effectiveness and prevent burnout.

2. Temporary Absence or Transition Period:

  • Context: If the organization is undergoing a transition, such as the departure of a Scrum Master or Product Owner, it might be necessary to combine roles temporarily to ensure continuity.
  • Justification: Having a single individual temporarily fill both roles can provide stability and maintain the momentum of ongoing projects. It ensures that the Scrum events continue to be facilitated and that Product Backlog management does not lapse.
  • Considerations: During this period, the organization should actively search for a replacement to fill the vacant role. Additionally, the individual in the dual role should receive support to manage their workload, such as delegating non-critical tasks to team members.

3. Highly Experienced Agile Practitioner:

  • Context: In situations where an organization has an individual with extensive experience and a deep understanding of both Scrum and the product domain, they might be capable of effectively handling both roles.
  • Justification: An experienced agile practitioner might have the skills and knowledge to temporarily balance the demands of both roles, especially in crisis situations where their expertise is crucial to navigating complex challenges.
  • Considerations: This should be a short-term solution even with a highly skilled individual. The organization should closely monitor the impact on the team and the individual’s workload. Continuous feedback from the Scrum team and stakeholders is essential to ensure that combining roles does not negatively affect productivity and morale.

Additional Guidance:

  • Clear Communication: In any of these scenarios, it is crucial to maintain clear communication with the team about the temporary nature of the combined role and the reasons behind it. This transparency helps manage expectations, and fosters trust within the team.
  • Monitoring and Support: Regular check-ins are necessary to assess the individual’s well-being and effectiveness in managing both roles. Providing additional support, such as temporary assistance or redistributing some responsibilities, can help mitigate the risk of burnout.
  • Plan for Transition: Have a clear plan for transitioning back to separate roles as soon as feasible. This includes setting criteria for when the transition will occur, such as reaching a specific team size in a startup or hiring a new team member during a transition period.

By considering these exceptions and managing them thoughtfully, organizations can navigate periods where combining the Product Owner and Scrum Master roles might be justified while minimizing potential drawbacks.

Food for Thought

By thoroughly considering the following aspects, you can make a more informed decision about whether combining the Product Owner and Scrum Master roles is the right move for your organization:

Experimentation and Feedback: If the idea of combining roles persists, consider running it as a time-boxed experiment. Gather feedback from the team and stakeholders before making a permanent change. This can provide insights into the practical implications and help you make a more informed decision.

Cultural Fit: Assess whether this change aligns with your organization’s culture and values. Scrum and Agile practices often challenge traditional hierarchies and thrive in a culture of collaboration and continuous improvement. Ensure that any role changes support rather than hinder these cultural elements.

Long-Term Vision: Keep the long-term vision in mind. Decisions made today should support the organization’s goals and values in the future. Consider how role clarity and adherence to Scrum principles will impact your team’s ability to deliver value continuously.


While combining the Product Owner and Scrum Master roles might seem efficient in specific contexts, it generally poses significant risks to the effectiveness of Scrum teams. These roles’ distinct responsibilities, necessary skills, and built-in checks and balances are crucial for fostering a productive and balanced environment where Scrum teams can thrive.

Although there are rare situations, such as in resource-constrained startups or temporary transitions, where merging these roles might be justified, these should only be temporary solutions with straightforward plans for separation. The insights from the LinkedIn poll and comments highlight the importance of maintaining role clarity to ensure sustainable team performance and alignment with Agile principles.

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