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New Features vs. Technical Debt: A Product Owner's Dilemma

September 6, 2023


Product Owner Dilemma - new features vs. technical debt


The Product Owner is the bridge between corporate strategy and the Scrum Team. The Product Owner must balance the demands of users against the need to ensure that the product remains up to date from a technical perspective. This often means that the Product Owner may need to choose between developing new features to satisfy customer requests and fixes for technical debt.

What is technical debt? Technical debt refers to the concept of accumulating suboptimal or incomplete solutions in software development, which may lead to inefficiencies, increased maintenance costs, and hindered progress over time. It represents the trade-off between immediate gains and long-term sustainability. Examples of technical debt include using quick fixes to address bugs instead of addressing the root cause, delaying code refactoring for the sake of meeting tight deadlines, neglecting documentation, and avoiding necessary updates or upgrades due to time constraints. Over time, these shortcuts and compromises can accumulate, making the software more difficult to maintain, causing performance issues, and hindering the introduction of new features. To address technical debt, the Product Owner may need to add Product Backlog items to the Product Backlog which include fixes to ‘pay back’ technical debt.


Technical debt slows delivery of new value for the product

The Dichotomy of User Requests and Technical Debt

User requests and technical debt often find themselves in opposition. On one hand, user requests drive product innovation and customer satisfaction. They represent features that enhance the user experience, attract new users, and retain existing ones. On the other hand, technical debt accumulates as a result of shortcuts, temporary fixes, and postponed maintenance. Left unattended, technical debt can hinder development speed, increase the risk of errors, and hinder scalability.

The Dilemma: Choosing Between the Short Term and the Long Term

Product Owners find themselves facing a challenging decision. Prioritizing user requests might lead to quick wins and immediate customer satisfaction. However, if technical debt is consistently ignored, the long-term health of the product and development process could be compromised. Conversely, if the majority of resources are allocated to addressing technical debt, users might be left waiting for new features and improvements, resulting in potential user dissatisfaction.

Effective Prioritization Strategies

Alignment with Product Strategy: Begin by understanding the overarching product strategy. Evaluate user requests and technical debt against this strategy. Prioritize those that align most closely with the product's long-term vision and goals.

Impact Analysis: Consider the impact for each user request and technical debt item. Take into account factors such as user value, potential revenue impact, and technical feasibility. This analysis helps in making informed decisions.

User Feedback: Engage with users to gather insights on their most pressing needs. Prioritize user requests that are frequently mentioned and that you believe will have a high impact on user satisfaction.

Technical Health Assessment: Regularly assess the technical debt landscape. Identify areas that are causing the most strain on development and address those that could potentially lead to critical issues down the line. Do not overlook technical debt! Too many priorities ignore technical debt for too long. Ignoring technical debt over the long term creates an emergency. System rewrites could be avoided down the road if technical debt is addressed regularly.

Bite-sized Technical Debt Reduction: Rather than allocating large chunks of time solely to addressing technical debt, consider incorporating debt reduction into regular development cycles. Perhaps dedicating a portion of each Sprint to tackle technical debt incrementally may be the best option.

Balanced Backlog Composition: Maintain a balanced Product Backlog that includes a mix of user requests and fixes technical debt items. Does the code need to be reorganized? Do we need to add code comments or enhance security? Balancing technical debt against user requests prevents either side from being neglected and allows for steady progress on both fronts.

Communication and Transparency

Clear communication with stakeholders is essential in managing this delicate balance. Transparency about the challenges of juggling user requests and technical debt fosters understanding and empathy. When stakeholders are aware of the rationale behind prioritization decisions, they are more likely to support the Product Owner's choices.


The journey of a Product Owner is riddled with choices, and none are more pressing than the delicate balance between fulfilling user requests and addressing technical debt. By aligning decisions with product strategy, conducting thorough impact analyses, prioritizing user feedback, and maintaining transparent communication, Product Owners can navigate this dilemma with confidence. In striking the right balance, they lay the foundation for a product that not only meets customer needs but also maintains its technical robustness for sustainable growth and success.


Scrum Day Madison 2023 is scheduled for September14, 2023

With break-out sessions for Scrum Masters, Product Owners, Developers and leaders, Scrum Day has something for everyone. This is your chance to meet speakers from Stanford University, Sub-Zero, The Hersheys Company, Amazon and more! Scrum Day is scheduled for September 14, 2023, in Madison, Wisconsin.




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